The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

The origins of the Internet date back to the development of packet switching and research  igtarget commissioned by the United States Department of Defense in the 1960s to enable time-sharing of computers.[1] The primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1970s. The funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks.[2] The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet,[3] and generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was widely used by academia in the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into virtually every aspect of modern life.

Most traditional communication media, including telephony, radio, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or even bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, and video streaming websites. Newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking services. Online shopping has grown exponentially for major retailers, small businesses, and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their “brick and mortar” presence to serve a larger market or even sell goods and services entirely online. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.

The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies.[4] The overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address (IP address) space and the Domain Name System (DNS), are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.[5] In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today’s list of New Seven Wonders.[6]

1 Terminology
2 History
3 Governance
4 Infrastructure
4.1 Service tiers
4.2 Access
5 Internet Protocol Suite
5.1 Internet protocol
5.2 IETF
6 Applications and services
6.1 World Wide Web
6.2 Communication
6.3 Data transfer
7 Social impact
7.1 Users
7.2 Usage
7.3 Social networking and entertainment
7.4 Electronic business
7.5 Telecommuting
7.6 Collaborative publishing
7.7 Politics and political revolutions
7.8 Philanthropy
8 Security
8.1 Malware
8.2 Surveillance
8.3 Censorship
9 Performance
9.1 Traffic volume
9.2 Outages
9.3 Energy use
10 See also
11 References
12 Sources
13 Further reading
14 External links

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
Further information: Capitalization of “Internet”
The word internetted was used as early as 1849, meaning interconnected or interwoven.[7] The word Internet was used in 1974 as the shorthand form of Internetwork.[8] Today, the term Internet most commonly refers to the global system of interconnected computer networks, though it may also refer to any group of smaller networks. When it came into common use, most publications treated the word as a capitalized proper noun; this has become less common.[9] This reflects the tendency in English to capitalize new terms and move to lowercase as they become familiar.[9][10] It is sometimes still capitalized to distinguish the global internet from smaller networks, though many publications, including the AP Stylebook, recommend the lowercase form in every case.[9][10] In 2016, the Oxford English Dictionary found that, based on a study of around 2.5 billion printed and online sources, “Internet” was capitalized in 54% of cases.[11]

The terms internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably; it is common to speak of “going on the Internet” when using a web browser to view web pages. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services,[12] a collection of documents (web pages) and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.[13]


A New Concept For the Bathroom – The Steam Shower

Over the last decade the bathroom has become one of the most popular rooms to be renovated and transformed throughout the home. This has, in turn, led to the abundance of bathroom fixtures and fittings offered within our market place. Although there is such a large amount of products offered, the steam shower has become one of the most desirable items for the home owner.

The steam shower is a relatively new concept. However, the introduction of steam has been renowned for years for its health and rejuvenating properties. Due to the benefits offered by steam, manufacturers decided to integrate a self contained shower enclosures with a wide range of facilities. These included a steam generator, body massage and foot massage systems, overhead monsoon shower, and chromo therapy lighting. Furthermore, these showers have high tech features such as televisions, radio, telephone and much more. Each system is built with the user in mind: from simple walk in shower cubicles to the shower cubicles combined with whirlpool bathtubs. This allows everyone from the young to the old to have the ability to enjoy the benefits of the steam shower.

These revolutionary systems now allow people the opportunity to indulge within a relaxing steam shower or enjoy the massaging and soothing effects created freeaccounts from the body jets. Many years ago you would have had to visit your local gym or spa to enjoy these sorts of health benefits but now for the cost of a new shower unit you can purchase one of the latest steam showers for your bathroom.

Each of the steam cabins come flat packed which alleviates the problem of struggling to get it in your home and in to your bathroom. They come in with four separate containers and are then easily assembled within the confines of your bathroom. They are simply plugged in to your hot and cold water feed and plugged directly in to your mains and away you go!

Not only does the steam unit add a touch of luxury to your bathroom, it can also increase the sale ability of your home. Each steam shower comes with its own unique options and includes the follow:

-Foot and Calf Massager

-Hydro Back Massage

-Overhead Monsoon Shower

-Handheld Shower

-Steam Generator

-Chromo Therapy Lighting

-Ozone Sterilization

-CD/MP3/iPod Connect ability

-Hands Free Telephone

-Computerized Remote Controls

-FM Radio Stereo


-Shelf & Mirror

If you also like to indulge within a bath alongside of taking an occasional shower then you can choose from the steam shower bath. This shower comes with all the refinements of the steam shower, combined with the latest in whirlpool bath technology. This then provides you with a confusing decision do you enjoy the massage and soothing effect of the whirlpool bath or the relaxing sensation of a monsoon shower – the choice is yours!


Book Trailers: Compiling & Arranging Elements for Effective Results

In book marketing, there are numerous promotional avenues. There’s Facebook, media interviews, book signings, book tours, news releases, and speaking engagements. These approaches are straight forward and rely on communication skills found in most writers. Book trailer is an animal of a different sort. It demands an assortment of skills and resources, mainly condensing the story to its most tantalizing elements and embellishing it with photos, videos, text, voice over, sound effects and music. It’s complicated, time consuming task, and if you hire someone, very expensive. Yet with some simple strategies, guidelines, alahazratbooks and resources you can produce an effective video with little or no money. That is, if you have a video camera/smart phone and an editing program, things you likely have already and don’t know it.

Defining Goals

First, let’s look at what you want to accomplish with at book trailer. In general, you want to promote book sales. However, being more specific you want to hook the viewer with unique and enticing information so they will watch the entire video. If you lose them before you’ve completed your pitch, there’s little chance of a book sale. As such, you require new and fascinating information throughout the video, information that not only holds their interest, but moves them toward buying your book.

Another goal is to make your trailer shareable, that it moves on from your initial viewers to their friends and followers. If your video resonates, it’s possible it will spread beyond your contacts. It could have an afterlife that spreads exponentially through social media. If you ask, you get. So, it makes sense to make this request, please share, toward the end of your video.

Compiling Elements

What types of things go into a book trailer. Normally, trailers answer potential readers” questions such as: what’s the book about, what’s the genre, is it any good, plus something about the author. Such things are usually found on the inner flaps of the book or on the back cover. If not, the following template used by producer Nat Mundel to create loglines that land movie and TV deals will help in that regard.


The above template is a great starting point to help you distill your book down to two sentences. It clarifies the genre, offers a mesmerizing shiny object that grabs their attention, and provides enough to leave the reader wanting more, all in a few brief sentences.

A logline is a one or two sentence description of your story that boils down its basic premise in a way that’s concise yet evokes emotion in your reader. It highlights what is most unique about your book. Specifically, the logline provides the author with a way to focus on the three main anchors of their writing.

Who is the protagonist?

What do they want?

What is at stake?

Once you have the logline sketched out, look for some escalation in the book that ups the stakes. It could be a confrontation or complication that takes the story in a different direction. The outcome should be unclear. It could also be the discovery of a new evidence, a red-herring, or a revelation that gives hope to reaching the goal. This section presents an emotional argument for buying the book and sets the hook before the prospect is reeled in. Most importantly, it sets up a question in the viewer’s mind about how this story continues.

The next section is more specific. It could be a brief discussion about the character traits of one of the main characters and how this reflects on the story. This might include character faults, misplace dreams, or foibles of the heart. It answers the question why. It could also be about the location or period of the story and what effect it has on the characters. Another consideration is the social or morale setting and how this affects the direction of the story. This section pulls the viewer deeper into the story, both emotionally and literally, asking the question, “Why did this happen?” It can also facilitate a love-hate polarity that further draws the viewer into your story.

The last section is closing the sale. By using adjectives commonly found in reviews it could imply the benefits of reading your book. It could present some additional arguments such as testimonials, reviews or awards. Being on any best seller list likewise deserves mention here. Acknowledgements for use of photos, videos and music are also shown in the section. You should also make a request to share this video. The most important part of this section is stating prominently where the book can be purchased. Various images of the book should be used in this section to imprint cover art and book’s title.

You will note that each section provides new and revealing information. It pulls the viewer in, creating an investment in different aspects of the book. Primarily, it creates that pressing question, “How does this story continue?” And that’s the bait that hooks your viewer and causes them to buy your book.

While there are other templates, the above format serves fiction books well. It answers the questions book readers ask and provides the information in a straight forward memorable fashion.

Writing your script will be a major task in that it demands a different style of writing, one that is denser and more compressed. Your script should contain both the narration and the card or graphics displayed on the screen. You should know that narration spoken over images is processed easier and quicker than the graphics competing with it. Thus, words on the screen tend to be brief, short phrases or individual words designed to be memorable, imperative and engaging.

Narration, on the other hand, relies on the human voice-to emote, phrase, emphasize and resonate- to develop deeper meanings. Its task is to tell a complicated story briefly and compellingly; or to highlight characters, situations and conflicts. Writing has to quickly and powerfully present the “saleable” qualities of your story, such as the characters and conflict(s) while hinting at likely outcomes. It might also convey the tone, style, and quality of your book.

Narration should use a recognizable vocabulary, figures of speech, and accepted language. Also, avoid long sentences and complex ideas, as the viewer’s attention is split between images, graphics and narration. If there is dialogue that explains a crucial story point, allow the narrator to take on that character and for greater impact, post the dialogue on a white screen.

Avoid wall to wall narration as this will soon dim the viewers’ interest. To take its place and vary the content, mix in moments of sound effects, graphics and/or music. Likewise, consider the use of live video with sound as this will too enliven your presentation. In the closing section, some narration can be used to punctuate key selling points even with same information shown on the screen.

How you end your trailer is indicative of its success. Final impressions like the initial ones are of greater importance and more memorable. So, with what impression do you want your prospect to leave? What indication of finality would work? It could be a musical ending over the image of your book cover and its tagline. It could also be a sound effect used earlier that congers up a certain feeling. Another choice is the sudden, startling glimpse of the killer’s silhouette, knife raised ready to strike accompanied by a woman’s scream. Whatever your choice, you want the viewer to go away literally and emotionally wanting more.

Now that you have scripted your book trailer, you need to come up with visuals and sounds that embellish them. Visually, these could be text, photos, videos and visual effects. Sound wise, they could be dialogue, voice over, sound effects or music. These embellishments should tease the viewer’s imagination to where the trailer plays out in the viewer’s head more so than on the screen.

Before you start searching for images, define what specific embellishment you want and approximately where they will be placed. Such a predetermination will reduce your search time and help maintain the focus of your video. In doing this process, compile some sort of record keeping so the inserts are labelled as to location within your script and where they can be found. Some embellishments may have alternates, ideas that might work provided the right image, sound or music can be found. I would designate these alternative with suffix a, b, c, etc.

In a normal 60-90 second book trailer, who might have the following number of embellishment inserts.

Voiceover: 60 seconds, 100 words max; 90 seconds, 150 words max

Text, titles, captions & listings: 85 words

Photos: 12 photos + various photos of book cover used 4 times

Videos: 2 Videos; 1 stock, 1 live action (About 5 seconds each)

Sound Effects: 3 sound effects + transitions as required

Music: 3 tracks (could be from same selection)

Visual Effects: 2 for moving text; 8 for photo & video transitions

Many of these media inserts can be found online. Sites like,, and offer high resolution images that you can download for free. Another site for free music and sound effects is You can find free public domain video clips at For music go to You will need to create a free account and can download various types of music for free with no royalty restrictions. Other media resources can be found on Google by searching for royalty free photos/videos/sounds. Do not use copyrighted materials.

If you feel uncomfortable about using your own voice, you can use a professional voiceover artist as found online. There are numerous voices from which to choose and demos are available on each artist. For voiceover narration on the 150-word example previously mentioned, costs would be about $25 on sites like music & studio/voiceover services. A special script should be compiled for the outside narrator, which indicates how you want the narration and dialogue to be read or expressed. These directions should be placed in parentheses prior to the words spoken.

There are some media inserts you may want to produce yourself. Your book cover, for instance, may be shot straight on, from the spine angle, and upright/slanted. Closer angles on the book cover’s artwork may also be relevant to your script. Background for these book photos should be on neutral or white poster board with some shots allowing room for text.

Other images that create the essence of the scene can also be produced with photos or video. Such inserts should be ambiguous allowing the viewer to fill in the blanks. Examples might be: a fearful eye wondering what’s behind her, a sound of footsteps approaching, two hands lovingly overlapping. Other inserts might be the scream from an open mouth, a hand clutching a knife, two lovers moving away through a park, a freeway clogged with traffic, a back lit image of the menace, a shadow of a hand holding a gun.

These images and sounds can prod the viewer to use his imagination and the results are more persuasive than using realistic images. Most video cameras have excellent sound recording ability, especially when using an external mic. Therefore, consider using your camera as a sound recorder and capturing just the sound by hooking up only the audio connections.

You might also want to consider a behind the scenes video section relating to research, character creation, establishing a story location, or target audience. Images with voiceover might be author at computer: medium side shot, fingers typing, author’s face looking at screen.

Now that you have compiled and downloaded or captured your trailer elements, how do you put them together. Before you start the editing process, let’s look at the setup of editing programs. The main feature will be the time lines. This is where video/audio clips are laid in and cut to the desire length. There are additional time lines below used for narration, sound effects and music. In the more expensive editing systems there are additional time lines to layer in and sync up additional media materials.

Source materials can be downloaded from the web or capture off your camera. These items are stored in a project file and would include video clips, photos, sound effects, narration, and music. These items are placed into the time line in their proper location where text and titles can be superimposed on the visual elements. Additional adjustments such balancing audio levels, transition effects, and color balance smooth out the cuts and give it a professional look. When combined together these elements make up your book trailer.

There are numerous video systems available with vary capabilities and range from free on up. PC users can edit using Movie Maker which comes installed with Windows while Mac users can edit with iMovie. If not installed, they can be download for free from Microsoft and Apple respectively. The Movavi 14 is also available free from or the Movavi 14 plus version goes for $39.95. The Pinnacle 21 editing system is available from for $49.95. More elaborate Pinnacle systems are available at higher prices. Corel® PaintShop® Pro 2018 and VideoStudio® combination which edits photos, designs graphics and makes movies is available through for $150.00.

These editing systems come with tutorials schooling you as to their capabilities and operation. While the free systems come with basic editing features, spending a bit extra can offer more creativity plus more imbedded effects and media resources. It all depends on the complexity of your trailer and the quality you want.

Arranging Elements

Now that you have all your script and media elements at hand, you can begin the editing process, pasting them into your time line. But where do you begin. I would start with the element that is the most consistent, be it narration, visuals or music. In the example I proposed, narration would be the element that is least likely to change much. So, you would lay that in first. Be aware that you may have to add pauses or even quicken the pace. This can be done by either adding room ambiance or cutting out pauses between sentences. When you record your narration, record a minute or so of room ambiance without talking and use this to extend pauses.

Next, start adding your visuals that support or embellish your narration. The length of these visuals will depend on their complexity and the time it takes to read superimposed text. If the text complements the narration, then the visual time can be reduced. Avoid overwhelming the viewer with too much information. For emphasis, space the narration to allow the viewer time to concentrate on a lengthy or important text.

A device often used in infomercials is duplicating narration and text on a plain background. This ups the comprehension and makes the information more memorable. This also varies the flow and increases the viewer’s concentration. This device works especially well when text rolls out on the screen one word at a time, an effect possible on more elaborate editing systems.

There will be a tendency to overplay the images and text. Too much information muddies the waters. Remember that you want the viewer to imagine a great deal of the story. By hinting what the book is about, you let the story develop in the viewer’s mind. Utilize the idea that book readers have imaginative minds and enjoy filling in the blanks. It’s a good idea to slow the pace to allow time for important images and ideas to form in the viewers mind.

Try to have a couple of video clips in your trailer. These are usually without sound, yet the screen motion stirs up thoughts and emotions not possible with still photographs. They likewise increase the attention span and make subsequent information more interesting.

Pace is an important factor in book trailers. Too slow, you lose your viewer. Too fast and your information get lost. There’s a happy medium and it depends on relating new and interesting materials that engage the viewer. That’s why sketching out your script is so important, as it forces you to see your trailer as an informative and entertaining book talk on video. Your script allows you to see the progression of your story building, pulling the viewer into an imaginary world.

Avoid cheesy effects which distract from your message. Simple transitions like fade-in, fade out or cross-fades keep the focus on the trailer’s purpose, to create an awareness of your book and a desire to buy it. Keeping the clarity of this goal in mind determines the success of your book trailer. Sometimes, people become enamored with a certain phase or image that if lost would make the video stronger. Be conscience of this fault and seek outside consultation to rectify.

Use the same font throughout, but vary the font size. Be aware that your text will be read on computer screens plus mobile devices. As such, font size must be readable and this may limit the length of text placed on the screen. Rather than minimize the font size, extend the text to the next screen using ellipsis (… ). The font size of the text should be indicative of its importance. For instance, in the last section, the acknowledgements for use of images or music would be smaller than places where the book could be purchased.

When superimposing text on an image, delay entry of the text ever so slightly so the viewer’s attention is on the image first, then on the text. Such a delay ups the comprehension as you control where the attention is focused.

Selection of music likewise requires some guidelines. Be aware that your perspective book buyers are already indoctrinate by seeing numerous TV and film productions with music. Your tastes and sensibilities in music may differ from your perspective audience. It’s therefore wise to select music reflective of the genre of your book. If it’s a scary murder mystery, that’s the type of music that would support that type of story. The music has many functions. It can create mood and atmosphere, portray emotions, reference a time or period, or create unreal situations. Music can serve several purposes that are either important on the emotional side of the movie or help/enhance the storytelling.

Using wall to wall music diminishes its impact. Fade out your music at various points and replace it with sound effects. Then at the appropriate moment bring back the music to elicit a new perspective or emotion. In this way, by isolating the music’s entrance, you make it more effective and allow it to support a new idea.

To help smooth out your cuts, allow the sound to slightly precede the visual. This allows the mind to process one element at a time and also creates suspense as to what the sound means. These micro overlaps create that, “What going to happen next?” mentality that subconsciously pulls the viewer in deeper.

Subtle use of sound effects can create the proper atmosphere or instill a menace is present. Wind blowing through the leaves or the footsteps of an approaching mugger help prod the imagination to where the story becomes a fixation. In addition, sound effects help break up the sameness of media elements and create higher expectations about the book and its contents.

As you continue with the assembly process, you will note that adjustments and corrections have to be made. You’ll also find that certain sequences don’t work, they don’t move the viewer toward your goals. This is a normal part of editing. It’s like writing a book, where much of the time is spent rewriting.


Tribute to Muhammad Ali Jinnah

If you change your past and work together in a spirit that every one of you, no matter to what community he belongs, no matter what relations he had with you in the past, no matter what his colour, caste or creed, is first, second and last a citizen of this State with equal rights, privileges and obligations, there will be no end to the progress you will make – Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Today we celebrate the 132nd birthday of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, 25th December 2008. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born on that day and as a nation we realize the most important personality, his efforts, achievements, and aims. jinnahtutors Today, we must remember what Muhammad Ali Jinnah wanted from this great nation. Jinnah was a handsome man with a dazzling personality; an eminent lawyer, possessing an impeccable character and an irreproachable reputation. Perhaps his motto of “Faith, Unity, and Discipline” can be a first step which may turn out to be a giant leap; it has such depth to it. As we fondly remember and salute our father, who was the top force which got us our identity and freedom as well as a place called Pakistan, the best we can do is pray for his high status in heaven and carry out his principles and teachings. We can learn and teach others about Muhammad Ali Jinnah, about his principles and his life.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born in Karachi on December the 25th, 1876 at Vazeer Mansion Karachi. He got his early education at Karachi and Bombay. He did his barrister from England. He saw the name of Hazrat Muhammad (Peace be upon him) on the top of the gate of Lincoln’s Inn and he decided to study there. Since the early days of his youth he was always a neat and nice boy. He was very well-mannered, punctual and disciplined. He was a born leader and had all the essentials for a leader since his childhood.

After his return, Jinnah started his practice in barristery. He joined All India National Congress in 1906. He attended for the first time a meeting of All India Muslim League in 1912. Later he Joined All India Muslim League in 1913. The third political party he joined was the Home Rule League. He was member of both the Congress and Muslim League at the same time. Initially, he remained working with the Hindu leaders of Congress. He was given the title of “Ambassador of Hindu Muslim Unity” by prominent politicians. With the passage of time he realized that the Hindu leaders of Congress have a different agenda. He left Congress and became fully involved with Muslim League.

Jinnah had originally been dubious about the practicability of Pakistan, an idea that Sir Muhammad Iqbal had propounded to the Muslim League conference of 1930; but before long he became convinced that a Muslim homeland on the Indian subcontinent was the only way of safeguarding Muslim interests and the Muslim way of life. When Muslim League finally decided to have a separate country for Muslims of the subcontinent, it was the leadership of Jinnah which led the nation to achieve this goal. Because these leadership qualities and his firm stand on the issue, In March 23, 1940 Jinnah presided over a Muslim League session at Lahore, where the first official demand was made for the partition of India and the creation of the state of Pakistan, where Muslims would be a majority. During three decades of political life, Jinnah had believed in the possibility of Hindu-Muslim unity, and it was with the utmost reluctance that he came to the view that partition was essential.

Britishers found no way to reject the demand of Muslims of the subcontinent for a separate homeland. 14th August 1947 was the day when we got our Homeland Pakistan. He took oath as the first governor-general on August 15, 1947 from Mr. Justice Mian Abdur Rasheed. It was his struggle and hard work and ability to lead us that made a dream come true. Mazhar-ud-din was the first person who gave the title “Quaid-e-Azam to Mr. Jinnah first time.

It was, therefore, with a sense of supreme satisfaction at the fulfillment of his mission that Jinnah told the nation in his last message on 14 August, 1948:

“The foundations of your State have been laid and it is now for you to build and build as quickly and as well as you can”. In accomplishing the task he had taken upon himself on the morrow of Pakistan’s birth, Jinnah had worked himself to death, but he had, to quote Richard Symons, “contributed more than any other man to Pakistan’s survival”.

The Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who changed the destiny of the Muslims of the South-Asia Subcontinent, breathed his last on 11 September, 1948 at Ziarat near Quetta. He was buried in Karachi. The Jinnah was seventy-one when Pakistan was born. He was spared by Almighty only for one year to set the ship of the new State on its keel.

Pakistan was based on sure foundations of social justice and Islamic socialism which emphasis equality and brotherhood; the great ideals of human progress, tolerance, regard and respect for each other’s faith and beliefs. The achievement of Pakistan was a daring feat; a struggle against all odds but it was only the Jinnah who makes it possible for a separate homeland for Muslims. Pakistan’s major tragedy has been its inability to produce a leader of Jinnah’s caliber and the failure of successive governments to follow his footsteps. If we follow our Muhammad Ali Jinnah guidance we would have been an exemplary nation.

An important message for the students at Aligarh in 1942 in which Jinnah said: “Build up your character that is more than all the degrees and no character is a mere wastage of time. You should develop a keen sense of honor and duty.” Jinnah said these words but what is their meaning. It means that trust on Allah and then our character will be automatically built up. Jinnah said in his speech that to develop a keen sense of honor and duty, to build up Pakistan. It’s the duty of every Muslim to develop a keen sense of honor in the spirit of Pakistan movement.

In my personal view, I take him as a person with immaculate personality, a best leader, a great founder, an energetic speaker, an orator, a man with complete honor and grace. I still hear the quotes of Jinnah roaring into my head and making me feel proud of a person who not only devoted his life time, but led the world knew that such People are born once in life time. So we the fortunate ones had him and still honor him. Our Jinnah had also given a very beautiful message ‘Work Work Work’. Being a student we must follow him and can still learn and come to grips with our destiny and realize his dreams. Also the Pakistani nation is something to do for Pakistan, not the outsiders something does for Pakistan. We exist with the existence of Pakistan. We should work hard for the progress of Pakistan. It’s the duty of every young person to work hard and make Pakistan a prosperous Country in the world.


Dental X-Ray Machines – Popular Models And What To Watch Out For When Buying

There are various decisions you have with regards to dental x-beam machines. In this article, we will turn out a portion of the top classes of these x-beam machines. We will likewise talk about the top elements to consider when you need to buy the best machine for your dental office or lab. Whenever we have gone through clarifying the various classifications of machines, just as tips on explicit qualities to consider, we will move into presenting a couple of the top producers of these machines. Toward the finish of the article, you will actually want to get a fair of the particular kind of machines and functionalities that serve your work best when looking for a dental x-beam machine, just as a thought of the top brands to begin investigating.

There are loads of dental x-beam machines out accessible today, from smaller machines to versatile machines to all encompassing and intra-oral x-beam machines. Bunches of conservative machine are likewise convenient in nature and can be worked with no wires. This permits the machine to be travel-accommodating. Notwithstanding these machines, intra-oral cameras are normally buy simultaneously too.

mobile dental lab

New Or Used Dental X-Ray Machines?

One significant highlight note prior to buying a machine is to choose if you need a totally new arrangement of dental x-beam machine or would you be able to manage with a pre-owned set. There are numerous providers of these machines with numerous models of offer, be it all encompassing or intra-oral machines. Utilized machines are some of the time considered a decent purchase since they are completely revamped and goes through careful testing and investigation prior to being put available once more, but accessible at a small portion of the cost of another one.

When purchasing the correct x-beam machine, another factor to consider is the measure of radiation openness and it is inside safe levels for the administrator. A few models offer more elevated levels of security so it is prescribed to go for these models.

One more highlight note before the acquisition of dental x-beam machines is the innovation utilized in the machine. As of now, it is regular for machine to accompany advanced x-beam capacity. The advanced pictures can be see quickly on the screen and has a preferable goal over more established innovations. The advanced records are additionally be effectively put away and don’t need a lot of room when contrasted with actual movies.

Well known Brands Of Dental X-Ray Machines

Gendex – Gendex is broadly eminent pioneer x-beam innovation for dentistry. The organization has been around for quite a while having been set up longer than a century prior. Their accomplice in dental gear, KaVo, Gendex gives machines to a wide range of dental x-beam employments.

Aribex – Aribex is new to the market and has practical experience in smaller dental x-beam machines. The market was established in 2003 and has from that point forward has fabricated a decent standing. They are expert in versatile or handheld machines which permits them to build up a profound and excellent scope of handheld machines.

When searching for dental x-beam machines, do consider the machine you need, regardless of whether it is versatile, all encompassing or intra-oral machines. An extraordinary spot to start your pursuit is through the web.


Self Installed Rubber Roofing – Proper Prepping is Essential

While you may have perused different cases that elastic material is totally fine when introduced over existing shingles, actually most self introduced elastic material makers won’t respect the guarantee on any rooftop which isn’t introduced on a totally spotless surface. So before you start introducing your elastic material, you’ll need to destroy and arrange your current shingles, and put down a new compressed wood underlayment if your rooftop requires it.

Benefits of Self Installed Rubber Roofing

Self introduced elastic material arrives in an assortment of styles, in the two rolls and shingles of various tones, however every one of them are introduced along these lines. Self introduced elastic material, whenever laid accurately, will ensure your rooftop for quite a long time in a wide range of climate, and won’t be helpless against parting nor breaking. Self introduced elastic material is an ideal roofing material for huge level rooftops.

roofing contractors Warriors Mark PA

Since self introduced elastic material is adaptable, it can “inhale” with your rooftop as the rooftop grows and contracts because of changes in temperature. Along these lines, self introduced elastic material encounters significantly less pressure than conventional black-top rooftop shingles, and the primary elastic rooftop which was introduced in Wisconsin in 1980 is as yet performing totally after almost thirty years of Wisconsin winters!

All self introduced elastic material, regardless of whether shingle or move style, is connected to the rooftop’s surface with glue. So the actual rooftop should be as spotless as possible piece the elastic material when strolled on.

The glue used to get oneself introduced elastic material won’t set up as expected on a sodden, dusty, or grimy surface so all water, oil, trash, and soil ought to be scoured or tidied up, with a leaf blower used to free the top of residue.

Introducing The Rubber Roofing

The elastic material should then be unrolled onto the region being covered, and slice to fit around any lines or vents. The material ought to be totally sliced and molded to the rooftop before cement is applied to it, and when it has been cut, the material ought to be moved up roughly most of the way and the cement applied daintily to the outside of the rooftop with a profound rest paint roller. The paste ought to be applied equitably with the goal that it dries level, and afterward applied to oneself introduced elastic rooftop and offered time to set up.


Best Smart Locks of 2020

Do you have a home that is considered a smart home? Or perhaps you are trying to turn your home into a smart home? When this is the case, one of the first things that probably changed was the type of lock on the door. Long gone are the days of deadbolts and using a key! Now, doors can be unlocked before you even get out of your car, or they can be unlocked to let someone into your home when you are halfway across the globe. dtconsultations  Many people are opting for smart locks on their homes as they find that they are more secure, and they simply love the technology that is being used. So, how do you choose the best smart locks for your home?

Features of the Best Smart Locks

When you are looking for the best smart locks on the market to outfit your home, there are several features that you are going to want to look for.

1. What security features does this smart lock have? Many of these locks are boasting extra security features like built in alarms if there is any tampering with the physical lock on the door. There are also those that have auto-lock technology that ensures that no matter what your door is always locked, even if you forget to lock it.

2. How easy is this to access? You want a lock that is going to give you options. For example, if your phone is set to control the lock, what happens when your battery dies? You want to be able to have some type of backup that will allow you to still get into your home.

3. What is the warranty on the lock? You will find that the higher the warranty, often the better the lock is. Those that only include a short warranty may not be as dependable when it comes to the long haul of your lock.

4. Consider the residential security grade of the lock. You will find that there is a grading system, much like when you were in school. A C is good, but a B is better, while an A is the best. You will find that some locks get a triple A which puts it as the best of the best.

5. Is this lock going to be weather durable? After all, the door in which this locks may be facing a lot of different weather whether this is sun and moisture from rain or snow. You want something that is going to be weather tough and still work properly.

6. Is there guest entry options with this lock? This is something that is a personal consideration, but if you have a lot of guests entering into your home, can you give them their own code to unlock and lock the door. It can give you a bit more power over who enters and leaves into the home.

Overall, when shopping for the best smart locks, you are going to be bombarded with options. However, choose the one that best suits your individual needs.



You Will Only Be Your Best If You Have FAITH!

If, you don’t feel, you deserve to be, the best, you can, possibly, become, how could you, ever get, to where, you say, you hope to reach? The reality is, you will only be your personal best, when/ if, you truly, have a large degree, of FAITH, in your abilities, ideas, and self – worth! After, more than four decades of conducting personal development seminars, and trainings, I have come, to strongly, feel, there is usually a direct correlation, between how we view, ourself, and how we perform, and proceed, through life! With that in mind, this article will attempt to, briefly, consider, examine, review, and discuss, using the mnemonic approach, what this means, and represents, and why it matters.

1. Face facts; future; furnish; fruition; feelings: Too many of us, resort to denials, when we would be better served, if, we took the time, to face the facts, in a truly, introspective manner! What do you want your future, to look like, and what are you, willing to do, to get there, and achieve it? However, it is essential, not only, to visualize this, but, to create a personal strategy, to furnish, a path, to achieve your objectives! This generally takes persistence, in order to transform a plan, to fruition! Never forget your feelings, and learn, to know, and identify, openly, and honestly, both your personal strengths, and weaknesses!

2. Attitude; aptitude; articulate; attention; astute; actions/ action plan: It takes a positive, can – do, attitude, combined, with a relevant, aptitude, and skill – set, to become your personal best! One must never be afraid, to articulate, how he feels, and what, he believes, but, must do so, only, after, thorough consideration, and understanding! Do you, consistently, pay keen attention, proceed, in an astute way, and develop, a strategically – dtconsultations  based, action plan? Will you use this plan, to develop your actions?

3. Integrity; ideas; imagination/ image; innovate; introspection: Maintain your personal integrity, but, never stop, using your imagination, to develop ideas, which might make you, happier, and better! You must like your personal image, inside, and outside, and be ready, to proceed, with thorough, relevant, true, introspection!

4. Truth; trends; timely; time – tested: Don’t lie, to yourself! Tell yourself the truth, whether you like it, or not! To do so, it’s important to proceed, in a well- considered, timely manner, and take the time, to consistently learn, from all the time – tested, knowledge, you might gain, from the past!

5. Head/ heart; healing/ health; humane; happiness/ happy: Will you develop, and effectively use/ proceed, in a manner, which balances, the best aspects of your emotional, and logical components, using a head/ heart balance? Is your life – style, etc, one, which is healing, and positive, to your health, and well – being? Will you maintain, the best aspects of your humanity, so you treat others, consistently, in a humane manner? What enhances your personal happiness, and what, consistently, makes you happy?

Will you have the degree of personal FAITH, in your self – value, to be the best, you can, possibly, become? How much do you care, about this?




Obtain Cheaper Health Insurance Rates By Avoiding Alcohol, Smoking, And Applying Early

If you’re like most consumers you probably on a glide path to start contemplating the purchase of health insurance when you’re much older then your current age. In fact, studies show that many people don’t even consider health insurance until after they are married or have children. Although it may seem unnecessary, the best time to start thinking about health insurance is while you are young and still relatively healthy. The fact is, the longer you wait to obtain health insurance the higher probability that you will end up paying a higher insurance rate or premium assuming you are still healthy enough to qualify for health insurance.

Research shows that when compared side by side a person in their twenties or thirties will be able to obtain a larger health insurance policy at a cheaper rate then a person who is fifty or older. Good health and habits also play a large role in determining your health insurance coverage and overall associated costs. Someone who is healthy, doesn’t smoke and avoids excessive use of alcohol and stays away from drugs will also enjoy the same benefits of a larger policy value with a lower cost when compared to someone who is out of shape, in bad health and with lifestyle habits that are truly bad for their body, mind and health.

Sadly, some consumers are under the misconception that they can get by without telling their potential health insurance provider negative aspects dealing with their health in order to qualify for better rates and coverage amounts. Unfortunately what those same folks fail to   is that normally most health insurance companies and providers require a screening or physical before they actually provide health insurance coverage. Typically, this medical screening combined with a thorough look over a person’s previous medical records identifies any current health ailments that exist with the potential insurance client and as a result the health insurance coverage amounts and rates are adjusted accordingly.

If you exam the economics side of health insurance you will see that the health insurance companies want to insure you while you are in your best possible health. For this it means more money taken in from the premiums you pay and less money paid out based on your lack of needing to receive regular medical care outside of routine appointments, checkups and of course, medical emergencies. Health insurance companies have gotten so good at this that they have three different types of coverage rates or premiums they classify consumers into based on their health. Those categories are standard, preferred and preferred plus. The preferred plus premium is for folks that are non-smokers and in excellent health continuing on down to the standard premium for consumers with minor health issues and who may have previously smoked but are no longer active in that habit.

Health insurance companies consider smoking a big deal so always make sure to tell the truth when filling out your health insurance application and receiving your medical exam and physical. In fact, some companies actually test a urine sample in order to determine if you are an active smoker. The bottom line up front is in order to enjoy lower rates for your health insurance you really should abstain from smoking. Drinking alcohol is also considered harmful to your health and viewed by many insurance companies in a negative light. You will need to check each individual insurance provider’s policy in terms of alcohol consumption. Some have no issue with consuming alcoholic beverages as long as there is no prior evidence of abuse or previous treatments/rehabilitation that were required and yet others will drastically increase your insurance rates based on the health problems and mortality rate from drinking.

If you’re still reasonably healthy then age can be the least discriminating factor when it comes to purchasing affordable health insurance. Generally speaking many consumers under the age of sixty can still enjoy reasonable health insurance rates and adequate coverage so long as there are no major health problems or illnesses to contend with.

For additional money saving health insurance tips and information on the obtaining cheaper health insurance try visiting  a website created by Sharlene Raven, a respected webmaster whose site   in providing health insurance information you can trust.


Self Employed Health Insurance

Health insurance has become a necessity owing to the increase in people living up to ripe old age, which has significantly contributed to number of people facing age related health problems. The customers are required to purchase health insurance plan with the help of regular periodic payments submitted to the insurance company. These payments are known as the insurance premium and are determined based on several factors. The insurance company in turn promises to compensate the policy owners their medical expenses in case of  . Health insurance can be purchased by individuals and by   for their employees. For self-employed people, there are specially designed policies available with all major health insurance providers.

Health insurance for self-employed individuals is comparatively more expensive than other health insurance plans. The reason due to which a higher price tag is attached to self-employed health insurance is that health insurance rates are inexpensive when the risk is pooled and distributed among a large group of people. Even distribution of the risk is the chief contributing factor for the affordability of group health insurance plans, which is not possible with self-employed health insurance plans. However, since 2002, self-employed health insurance costs have become tax deductible at a rate of up to seventy percent. This decision of providing tax benefits is bound to provide much-awaited relief to self-employed people.

Self employed health insurance plans offer policies that bring together the benefits of indemnity and managed care health insurance. This allows the self-employed people to obtain a health insurance policy without compromising good cost and good care.
It is possible to get competitive rates for self-employed health insurance policies online, as the process of application is both fast and easy. To have an accurate estimate, applicants must make sure that they complete the application process entirely. However, applicants are under no obligation to buy the policy after receiving the health insurance quotes.

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