Diamond gemstone is the hardest gem known to humanity in addition to being the most valued. It has derived its name from the Greek word adámas, meaning “unbreakable.” No other stone is as intensely mined or strictly regulated as this shimmering beauty. Though it is formed of pure carbon, its hardness is due to the atoms being compacted by high pressure and temperature in the earth’s upper mantle.
Diamonds are Combustible: Sir Issac Newton
Diamonds, in most cases, are found to have been formed between the depths of 80 and 150 km in the earth’s crust. As it is composed of carbon, the stone burns in air that is heated to very high temperature. It will be interesting to note here that the idea of this gemstone being combustible was first suggested by Sir Issac Newton in 1675. The first case of incineration of diamond was achieved 19 years later by two Italians, Averani and Targioni.
Measurement of Diamond in Carats
This gorgeous gemstone is among the most important gems that are measured in carats. However, it would be interesting to note that the value of the carat varied in different countries until it was standardized as 0.2 grams (200 milligrams) in 1907. It will not be out of place to mention here that the term carat was perhaps derived from the Mediterranean carob seed pods that have for long been used to weigh gems/stones. The name itself stems from the Greek word kerátion that means “carob seed.”
Forms and Cuts of Diamond
This vibrant gemstone possesses flawless crystal form and high symmetry. Uncut crystals might appear to be greasy and a tad rounded. However, once they undergo cutting, they emit lustre and dispersion. This is what gives the stone its sparkle and radiance.
The brilliant cut enjoys maximum popularity today as it best displays the fiery brilliance of this majestic stone. Some of the other popular diamond cuts include princess, pear, baguette, and emerald. Diamond jewelry enjoys lasting popularity among masses.